Español II
Grammar Notes

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Para Empezar 1
Adjectives
Nationalities
The Verb SER
Regular Verbs
Questions & Question Words
Capítulo 1A
Uses of TENER
Irregular "YO" Verbs
Stem-Changing Verbs
Affirmative & Negative Words
Capítulo 1B
Present Tense of IR 
Review of Superlatives
Review of Comparatives of Inequality
Comparatives of Equality
Superlatives with ísimo
Saber vs. Conocer
Hace -time- que
 
Capítulo 2A/3B Combo
Verbs with Infinitives
Using GUSTA
Review of SER vs. ESTAR with Present Progressive
Review of Possessive Adjectives
Reflexive Verbs
Affirmative Tú Commands
Capítulo 2B Capítulo 3A Capítulo 3B Irregular Preterite
Capítulo 4A Preterite vs. Imperfect
Capítulos 5A-6A
Capítulo 7A Capítulo 7B Capítulo 8A Capítulo 8B

 

 

Adjectives
Adjetivos

1.  Adjectives are words that describe nouns.  Some English examples would be "pretty" or "big".

2.  In Spanish, an adjective has to agree with the noun it is describing.  If the noun is masculine, then the adjective is masculine, but if the noun is feminine, then the adjective will become feminine.  The same is true if the noun is plural, then the adjective will have to be made plural also.

3.  Look at how the word "FEO" can be changed to agree with the noun "PROFESOR"

One Male Teacher El profesor es feo.
One Female Teacher La profesora es fea.
Many Male Teachers Los profesores son feos.
Many Female Teachers Las profesoras son feas.
Many Teachers 
(mixed or unknown)
Los profesores son feos.

4.  Notice how the ending of the adjective changes depending on what the noun is.  Look at this chart.  It is the same chart for ALL adjectives ending with the letter 'o'.

  MASCULINE FEMININE
SINGULAR guapo guapa
PLURAL guapos guapas

5.  Adjectives that end in any other letter (such as 'l' or 'r' or 'e') don't have a feminine form, but can only be made plural.  Look at these similar sentences about teachers, but notice how the adjectives don't need to change as much.

One Male Teacher El profesor es popular.
One Female Teacher La profesora es popular.
Many Male Teachers Los profesoras son populares.
Many Female Teachers Las profesoras son populares.
Many Teachers
(mixed or unknown)
Los profesores son populares.

6.  Notice how the ending of the adjective only changes when the noun is plural.  Look at this chart.  It is the same chart for ALL adjectives ending in ALL other letters (except 'o').

  'e' 'r' 'l'
Singular inteligente popular débil
Plural inteligentes populares débiles

7.  Look at the following examples.  Notice how ending of the adjective matches the noun it is describing.  Also notice that the adjectives FOLLOW the nouns.

La escuela de Lafayette tiene muchos profesores inteligentes.
Todos mis amigos son estudiantes estudiosos.
Mis amigos y yo tenemos clases difíciles y exigentes.
Mis padres van a las oficinas grandes para trabajar.
Todos nosotros comemos hamburguesas deliciosas en la cafetería fea.
Mi hermana es estudiante universitaria en una universidad pequeña.

For additional information and practice:
Language Guide Adjective Notes Pt 1
Language Guide Adjective Notes Pt2
Language Guide Adjective Notes Pt 3
StudySpanish Adjective Notes Pt 1
StudySpanish Adjective Notes Pt 2
 

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Adjectives of Nationality
Adjetivos de Nacionalidad

1. Adjectives of Nationality are very similar in Spanish and in English. They are almost all cognates and are also the same words used for the language.  For example: español can refer to the Spanish language as well as a Spanish citizen; and inglés is both the English language and someone from England.

2. Adjectives of nationality come in three groups in Spanish, each with its own set of rules:

Grupo 1 * These words end in "O"
*Follow same rules as regular -o adjectives*
*Have regular masculine & feminine forms*
*Have regular singular & plural forms*

Ejemplo:

chino

chinos
china chinas
argentino boliviano brasileño colombiano
coreano cubano chileno chino
colombiano dominicano ecuatoriano europeo
filipino griego guatemalteco hondureño
indio italiano mexicano norteamericano
noruego panameño paraguayo peruano
puertorriqueño ruso salvadoreño sudamericano
sueco suizo uruguayo venezolano

Grupo 2 * These words end in other vowels
*Do not have masculine or feminine forms*
*Have regular singular & plural forms*
*Words ending in "í" ...add "es" when making them plural*

Ejemplo:

vietnamita

vietnamitas

canadiense costarricense estadounidense isrealita
marroquí nicaragüense paquistaní vietnamita

Grupo 3 * These words end in a consonant
*Are different from regular adjectives*
*Have masculine & feminine forms*
*Have regular singular & plural forms*
*When adding letters to these words, take off accent*

Ejemplo:

español

españoles
española españolas
alemán danés escocés español
francés honlandés inglés irlandés
japonés portugués    

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Adjective Notes Pt 2

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Affirmative and Negative Expressions
Expresiones con Afirmativos y Negativos

1. Affirmatives are words that express a positive situation and Negatives express the opposite. The following sentences show how this works in English.

My friend wants something special for her birthday. My parents did nothing special for my birthday!
I always do my homework for Spanish! My dog never eats my homework.
We want to go to the mall, too. (also) She doesn't want to come to my house either.
Are you looking for somebody? Nobody is looking for Bob.

2. Now, you need to memorize the vocabulary we'll be working with.

Affirmatives   Negatives
algún, alguno, alguna, algunos, algunas some, any ningún, ninguno, ninguna no, none, not any
alguien someone, somebody nadie no one, nobody
siempre always nunca never
alguna vez one time ninguna vez not one time, not once
algunas veces,
a veces
at times, sometimes jamás not ever
algo something nada nothing
o...o either...or ni...ni neither...nor
también also tampoco neither

When writing these sentences in Spanish, there are special grammatical rules to consider. First, you have to understand where in a sentence a specific word can and cannot go. Second, you have to understand that in Spanish, the more negative words...the better! There is no problem in using "double negatives".  In fact, double negatives, and even triple negatives, are encouraged!

3. Consider the following rules and examples: Look carefully at the position of the negative word in relationship to the verb.  Use the list above to translate these sentences.
Many negatives can go either in front of the verb or behind. Yo no bailo nunca.
Yo nunca bailo.
Double negatives... always cool, make verb sandwiches! No habla nadie.
Nadie estudia nada.
If there is a negative word or phrase after the verb, then there must be a negative before the verb.  The negative before the verb can be "NO". No pido ayuda nunca.
Juanes no entiende nada.
Ningún estudiante sabe nada.
When the negative word is the subject, use it as a single subject. Nadie da ningún discurso.
Ninguna clase está en el laboratorio
Negatives like to be with their friends, so the more the merrier...PARTY!! Nadie quiere hacer nada conmigo tampoco.

¡Nunca entiendo ni las palabras ni los verbos en ninguna lección!

Clauses (a complete thought with a verb) never mix affirmatives with negatives. Separate clauses (joined by a conjunction) may use both. No como ni arroz ni papa, al contrario yo siempre como pan o cereal.
Positives have no rules...use them just like you would in English! Yo siempre aprendo algunas palabras de memoria.

4. Alguno/Ninguno are used to modify nouns and need to agree in number and gender with the noun they describe.

Algún estudiante entiende. Ningún estudiante entiende
Alguna clase trabaja Ninguna clase trabaja.
Me gustan algunos videos. *Ningunos pantalones me quedan.
Necesito algunas buenas notas. *No tengo ningunas tijeras.
  *Can only be made plural if the object has to be plural (like scissors, shorts, or pants)

5. Alguno/Ninguno can also be used as pronouns with the preposition "DE".  Alguno/Ninguno must still agree with the noun being described.

Alguno de los profesores enseña la lección Ninguno de los estudiantes hace ninguna pregunta.
Yo contesto alguna de las preguntas. No me gusta ninguna de las reglas.
Algunos de los materiales son importantes. *Ninguno/Ninguna should not be made plural unless the word being modified has to be plural
Repito algunas de las palabras con mi profesor.

6. Be careful when translating to and from English. It must make sense in the language being spoken or written.

No one is buying anything.

Nadie compra nada.

Even though the English uses "anything", it must be "nada" because of the double negative rule.

I never get any bad grades!

¡Nunca saco ninguna mala nota!

Again, "any" must become "ninguna" to be correct in Spanish.

None of the boys ever smoke.

Ninguno de los chicos fuma nunca.

Again, "ever" translates as "nunca" so that the verb sandwich is in place.

For additional information and practice:
Language Guide Practice Adjectives Pt 3
StudySpanish Notes on Negation
Colby Practice with Negative & Positives

 

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Commands: Affirmative & Negative Tú
Unos Mandatos

1. An affirmative command, or mandate, is when you tell someone what to do and a negative command is when you tell someone what not to do.  These commands are to be used only when you are talking to someone of a "tú" nature.  These cannot be used with "usted" people, groups of people, or in a "we" fashion.  In Spanish, there are many variations of commands and they all depend on the people to whom you are giving orders.

2. To make affirmative tú commands: Look at the following commands that a teacher is giving commands to various students in his classroom.  El Sr. Pescado might say...

Regular Verbs
¡Habla con tu compañero! ¡Escucha bien! ¡Escribe los apuntes! ¡Sigue las instrucciones!
¡Repite las palabras! ¡Entrega la tarea! ¡Discute este problema! ¡Juega mi juego!
Did you notice:
a The verbs are in the 'he/she/usted' form of the verb
a Stem-changers are still present (repite, juega, sigue)
a You will be able to tell what the meaning is based on context
Irregular Verbs
salir sal (leave) ¡Sal de mi oficina! Leave my office!
hacer haz (do) ¡Haz tu tarea! do your homework
tener ten (have) ¡Ten prisa! Be quick!
decir di (tell, say) ¡Di la verdad! Tell the truth!
venir ven (come) ¡Ven aquí! Come here!
ser sé (be) ¡honesto! Be honest!
poner pon (put, place) ¡Pon tus libros en tu mochila! Put your books in your backpack!
ir ve (go) ¡Ve a mi partido de fútbol! Go to my soccer match!
Did you notice:
a Most of these verbs have irregular "yo" forms with 'go' endings
Affirmative Commands with Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns Use 'te'
(because it is a "tú" command)
¡Lávate la cara! ¡Levántate la mano!
¡Ponte la chaqueta! ¡Diviértete!
Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Use the pronoun you would use in a normal sentence ¡Repítelas!
(Repeat them!)
¡Ponlo aquí!
(Put it here)
¡Hazla ahora!
(Do it now!)
¡Háblame!
(Talk to me!)
When using multiple types of pronouns Pronouns are placed in the following order:
1-Reflexive
2-Indirect
3-Direct
¡Dímelo!
(Tell it to me!)
¡Póntelos!
(Put them on!)
¡Lávatelas!
(Wash them!)
¡Escríbemelos!
(Write them for me!)
Did you notice:
a Remember...You must use "TE" with Reflexive verbs when giving a command (Telling someone to do  something to him/herself).
a When adding pronouns, you must also add an accent to keep the pronunciation accurate.  For most verbs, it is the second to the last syllable of the original verb.  Look at the examples carefully and notice where the new accent has been placed.

 

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Informal Commands
StudySpanish Notes on Irregular Informal Commands
 

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Commands: Ustedes

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Comparatives of Equality
Comparativos de Igualdad

Comparatives of Equality show how things are similar.  In English, we usually use the words "as...as".  Look at these phrases:

tan + adjective + como as + adjective + as
tanto + noun + como as much + noun + as
tantos + nouns + como as many + nouns + as

Look at these examples, noticing which words agree.  Also notice the different uses of verbs.
Los estudiantes leen tantos libros como los profesores. The students read as many books as the teachers.
Mis hermanas no son tan altas como mi hermano. My sisters are not as tall as my brother.
La Profesora Gómez da tanta tarea como el Señor Problema. Professor Gómez gives as much homework as Mr. Problema.
Mi gato y mi perro juegan tanto como mi pájaro. My cat & dog play as much as my bird.
En la selva tropical, la población es tan diversa como en la ciudad. In the rainforest, the population is as diverse as in the city.

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Comparatives of Equality
Colby Practices with Comparatives

 

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Review of Comparatives of Inequality
Repaso de Comparativos de Desigualdad

1.  Comparatives in English end in the letters "er".  We have some English irregulars where we have to use the words "more" or "less".  (we would never say "funner" or "intelligenter"!)

2.  Comparatives of inequality show how things are different.  Look at the following formulas:

más + adjective/noun + que more...than, 'er'
menos + adjective/noun + que less...than, not as...as

Just like all adjectives, be sure your adjective agrees with the noun you're describing.  Notice that if you want a pronoun at the end, you need to use the SUBJECT PRONOUNS.  Look at the following examples:
María tiene más amigos que yo. Maria has more friends than I.
Yo estoy más frustrada que ustedes. I'm more frustrated than you'all.
Las tortugas son menos lindas que los tucanes. Turtles are not as beautiful as toucans.
(less beautiful than)
Las pulgas son menos grandes que los leones.
Las pulgas son más pequeñas que los leones.
The fleas are smaller than the lions.
(The fleas are not as big as the lions.)
Gina tiene más años que yo. Gina is older than I. (has more years)

3. Special words:  Just like in English, there are words that don't work with the formula.

mejor que better than
peor que worse than
mayor que older than
menor que younger than
NEVER use más or menos with these words!!!!!
Julia es mayor que yo.
María juega tenís peor que Juan.
Los estudiantes son menores que los profesores.
mejor & peor are placed BEFORE the noun
menor & mayor are placed AFTER the noun
mi mejor amigo
el peor jugador
mi hermano mayor
la estudiante menor

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Comparatives of Inequality
Colby Practices with Comparatives

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The Conditional Tense: Regular & Irregular Verbs

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Demonstrative Adjectives

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Direct Object Pronouns

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Double Object Pronouns

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The Future Tense: Regular Verbs

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The Future Tense: Irregular Verbs

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The Verbs GUSTAR & ENCANTAR

1.  GUSTAR is used to mean "like"
2.  ENCANTAR is used to mean "love" (for things only, not people)
3.  Look at these phrases that use GUSTA/ENCANTA
Me gusta mucho el helado. I like ice cream a lot.
¿Te gustan más los tacos o las enchiladas? Do you prefer tacos or enchiladas? OR Do you like tacos or enchiladas more?
A María no le gusta mirar videos. María doesn't like to watch videos.

4. In addition, you have gustaría (would like) and encantaría (would love). All rules and instructions for gusta and encanta apply to gustaría and encantaría also.
¡A los estudiantes no les gustaría tener tarea esta noche! The students would like to not have homework tonight!
¿Qué te encantaría para tu cumpleaños? What would you love to do for your birthday?
¡A mis amigos y a mí nos gustarían unos galletas de chocolate! My friends and I would love some chocolate cookies!

5.  In sentences, GUSTA/ENCANTA/GUSTARíA/ENCANTARíA are conjugated based on the object of the sentence, not the people.  Look at these examples.

When used with VERBS: use GUSTA/ENCANTA
A Julio y a Manuel les gusta tocar los instrumentos.
When used with Single Nouns: use GUSTA/ENCANTA
¡A mí me encanta la clase de español!
When used with Plural Nouns: use GUSTAN/ENCANTAN
¿No te gustarían unas buenas notas?

6.  When using GUSTA/ENCANTA/GUSTARíA/GUSTARíAN, we will use Indirect Object Pronouns (IOPs).  Look at the following sentences and see how they fit.
Me encanta cantar, pero no canto bien. I love to sing, but I don't sing well.
¿Te gustan las clases de ciencias? Do you like science clases?
¡Le encantaría vivir en España! He/She/You (formal) would love to live Spain!
No nos gustarían unos refrescos de Coke. We would not some like Coke sodas.
Les encanta jugar deportes. They love to play sports.

7.  Sometimes you need to make yourself clearer regarding the people in your sentence, and sometimes you just want to make a point.  You can add a phrase for emphasis or clarification.  Look at how the sentences from above could be re-written for emphasis and clarification.
A mí me encanta cantar, pero no canto bien. A nosotros no nos gustarían unos refrescos de Coke.
A José y a mí no nos gustarían unos refrescos de Coke.
¿A ti te gustan las clases de ciencias? A vosotros os
A él le encantaría vivir en España!
A ella le encantaría vivir en España!
A usted le encantaría vivir en España!
A Raúl le encantaría vivir en España!
A ellos les encanta jugar deportes.
A ellas les
encanta jugar deportes.
A ustedes les
encanta jugar deportes.
A los estudiantes les encanta jugar deportes.
A Carlos y a ti les encanta jugar deportes.

 

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Verbs like GUSTA
Colby Practices with GUSTA
Colby Practices with verbs like GUSTA

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HACER Expressions in the Present Tense

1. How long have you done your favorite extracurricular activity? How long have you been a cheeleader? How long have you taken piano lessons? The "HACE -time- QUE" formula allows you to talk about how long you've done your favorite things.  Examine the following sentences and see how it all works:

Hace ocho años que yo tomo lecciones de artes marciales. I've taken martial arts lessons for 8 years.
Hace mucho tiempo que yo tengo animales en mi casa. I've had animals in my house for a long time.
Hace unas horas que hablo por teléfono con mi mejor amiga. I've been on the phone with my best friend for some hours.
Did you notice:
The "HACE" never changes...it will always be "HACE"
The "-time-" can be any amount of time...it doesn't even need to be specific
The subject pronoun goes in front of the verb...it can be any pronoun or name
The verb is conjugated in the present tense to agree with the subject...because it is still happening

 

2. Below are some key expressions of time you will need to be familiar with:

un minuto a (one) minute una semana a (one) week mucho tiempo a long time
una hora an (one) hour un mes a (one) month poco tiempo a short time
un día a (one) day un año a (one) year    

 

3. Of course you can talk about other people as well as yourself, if you really want to.  Just insert the subject's name and conjugate the verb to agree with the number of people:

Hace mucho tiempo que Bob es animador. Bob's been a cheerleader for a long time.
Hace unas horas que mis hermanas están en el parque con sus perros. My sisters have been in the park for hours with their dogs.
Hace tres años que tú no hablas conmigo, ¿no? You haven't spoken to me for 3 years, right?
Hace unas semanas que mis amigos y yo no asistimos a clases de baile. My friends and I haven't been to dance classes for weeks.

Did you notice:
The "HACE" still never changes...it will always be "HACE" regardless of the subject
The subject pronoun goes in front of the verb...it can be any pronoun or name

And NOW.....you can even make them NEGATIVE!!
(this shows how long it's since you've done that activity)
Notice the last two sentences and how the "NO" fits just in front of the conjugated verb
(just like in regular sentences!)
 

 

4. Now, let's look at how to ask someone a question about how long they've done their favorite activities.
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que...conjugated verb + name/subject...?

¿Cuánto tiempo hace que estudias español? How long have you studied Spanish?
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que hace Mario gimnasia? How long has Mario done gymanstics?
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que sacan Uds. buenas notas? How long have you'all been getting good grades?
¿Cuántos años hace que participan Rogelio y Gloria en el club de computadoras? How many years have Rogelio and Gloria participated in computer club?
¿Cuántas semanas hace que no habla María con José? How many weeks has Maria not spoken to Jose?

Did you notice:
The subject comes after the conjugated verb...just like all other questions

AND...you can still ask a question about a negative activity
(how long have you not done a certain activity)

AND for even more fun...you can replace "TIEMPO" with a specific time
"cuánto" becomes either "cuántos" or "cuántas" to agree with the gender

 

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on HACE expressions with Time

 

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HACER Expressions in the Preterite and Imperfect Tenses
(Using HACER to mean "AGO")

 

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  Imperfect of Regular Verbs

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Imperfect of SER, VER, & IR

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Possessive Adjectives
And other ways to show possession

1. An adjective that shows ownership or relationship is called a POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. Study the chart below:
Mi hermana es muy inteligente y atrevida. My sister is very intelligent and daring. Mis amigos y yo no tenemos nuestra tarea. My friends and I don't have our homework.
Nuestro padre no está contento porque llegamos tarde. Our dad isn't happy because we're late.
Voy al cine con mis amigos. I'm going to the movies with my friends. Carlos y Bob son nuestros amigos. Carlos and Bob are our friends.
Gloria y Luz son nuestras amigas. Gloria and Luz are our friends.
¿Dónde está tu mochila? Where is your backpack? vuestro/vuestra

vuestros/vuestras

your (plural, familiar)
¿Dónde están tus libros? Where are your books?
José busca su tarea. José is looking for his homework. Los hermanos van a su casa. The brothers are going to their house.
Gloria busca sus anteojos de sol. Gloria is looking for her sunglasses. Tú y Juan tienen sus zapatos, ¿no? You and Juan have your shoes, right?
Sra. Gomez, ¿dónde está su clase? Mrs. Gomez, where is your class? Los estudiantes están orgullosos de su colegio. The students are proud of their school.
El equipo busca su entrenador. The team is looking for it's trainer. Los clubes siempre tienen sus reuniones en las salas de clase. The clubs always have their meetings in the classrooms.

IMPORTANT THINGS TO NOTICE (and REMEMBER):
1. Whether the possessive is singular or plural depends not on the person, but on the OBJECT BEING DESCRIBED (it's an adjective after all!) J

2. NUESTRO has 4 forms: it can be masculine, feminine, singular, and plural.  It is an -o adjective and can be changed like other -o adjectives.

3. SU has many possible meanings, the exact definition will usually be determined by the context of the sentence or the conversation.

4. There are NO ACCENTS on these words.  You have seen some of these words with accents, but the accent will change the meaning and are not needed here.

2. Below is the simple chart. 

Singular Objects

Plural Objects

mi nuestro/nuestra mis nuestros/nuestras
tu vuestro/vuestra tus vuestros/vuestras
su su sus sus

3. There is also a long way of showing possession: using DE with prepositional pronouns. Using this method is seldom required, but may add variety to your writing, it can add emphasis to your message, or it might add clarification when needed.  Consider all the many definitions for SU, this long method might make your point clearer.  Look at the paired examples and notice how the meaning doesn't change.

"THE" + object + DE + pronoun
los libros de mí mis libros la madre de nosotros nuestra madre
el perro de ti tu perro las clases de vosotros vuestras clases
los gatos de él sus gatos los libros de ellos sus libros
la chaqueta de ella su chaqueta la amiga de ellas su amiga
la clase de Ud. su clase la casa de ustedes su casa
Did you notice:
a
Since SU has so many different meanings, using the long method can clarify your intent. See how it's easier to understand who the owner is using the long method?

4. One final way to show possession is by using DE to take the place of 'S. Remember that the 's does not exist in Spanish, so you must use the long method here. Look carefully at how these examples are constructed:

la mochila de Josefina Josefina's backpack
las clases de la Sra. Rehfeldt y del Sr. Fish Mrs. Rehfeldt's and Mr. Fish's classes
las notas de los muchachos y de las muchachas the boys' and girls' grades
los informes de Juan Juan's reports
los exámenes de la clase the class's exams
la tarea de los estudiantes the students' homework
el trabajo del Dr. Montes Dr. Montes' work
los coches de nuestros amigos our friends' cars
los guantes del estudiante the student's gloves
los padres de tus amigos your friends' parents
Did you notice:
a
There are all possible combinations of singles and plurals
a It is possible to use possessive adjectives here as well (my, your, etc)
a DE + EL = DEL (when the el is used with a title or a noun)
a
When there are 2 people or 2 groups, use 2 DEs...
in Spanish, Everyone gets their own DE!

a
Nowhere will you ever use 's in Spanish! J

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Possessive Adjectives
StudySpanish Notes on Contractions
StudySpanish Notes on Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions
StudySpanish Notes on Possessive Pronouns

 

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Present Tense of Regular Verbs
1.  Verbs are the action words of the sentence.  Regular Verbs are Spanish verbs that follow the prescribed formula and do not have any stem-changes or spelling irregularities.  This section is for present tense, this that are currently happening or will happen in the near future.

2.  Each verb has 2 parts: the stem and the ending. The ending determines what type of verb it is (-ar, -er, or -ir)

verb

stem

ending

hablar habl- -ar
leer le- -er
escribir escrib- -ir

3.  When you decide to conjugate a verb, you have to consider the ending of the verb and the subject of your sentence.  The subject pronouns are listed below.

  Singular Plural
First Person YO (I) NOSOTROS (we-m)
NOSOTRAS (we-f)
Second Person (you-familiar) VOSOTROS
VOSOTRAS
Third Person ÉL (he)
ELLA (she)
USTED (you-formal)
ELLOS (they-m)
ELLAS (they-f)
USTEDES (you-pl)

4.  Each different verb has a specific set of endings that are added to the stem, depending on who is the subject of the sentence.  This is called conjugating.  Look at each chart below.  Notice the highlighted endings.

-AR Verbs -ER Verbs -IR Verbs
hablo hablamos leo leemos escribo escribimos
hablas habláis lees leéis escribes escribís
habla hablan lee leen escribe escriben

5. In the sentences below, notice how the subject and verb agree.

Yo estudio mucho para la escuela. I study a lot for school.
¿Comes tú en la cafetería? Do you eat in the cafeteria.
Juanita le escribe cartas a Julio. Juanita is writing letters to Julio.
El profesor vive en Wildwood. The teacher lives in Wildwood.
¿Canta bien usted? Do you sing well?
Mis amigos y yo caminamos a menudo. My friends & I walk often.
Los estudiantes nunca desayunan. The students never eat breakfast.
María y Regina tocan la radio. Maria & Regina are playing the radio.
¿Asisten ustedes al concierto? Are you guys attending the concert?

6. Finally, notice all the different translations possible for the same word.  One verb in Spanish has 4 possible meanings in English...check it out...

como I eat,
I am eating,
¿do I eat?,
¿am I eating?
escribimos we write,
we are writing,
¿do we write?,
¿are we writing?
estudias you study,
you are studying,
¿do you study?,
¿are you studying?
habláis  
él lee he reads,
he is reading,
¿does he read?,
¿is he reading?
Uds. comparten you share,
you are sharing,
¿do you share?,
¿are you sharing?

So how will you know which translation to use....CONTEXT CUES, silly!

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Subject Pronouns
StudySpanish Notes on Regular Verbs Pt 1
StudySpanish Notes on Regular Verbs Pt 2
StudySpanish Notes on Regular Verbs Pt 3
Language Guide Notes on Subject Pronouns
Language Guide Notes on Regular -AR Verbs
Language Guide Notes on Regular -ER & -IR Verbs

 

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Present Tense: Irregular Verbs (YO form)
1.  The following vverbs have a regular conjugation pattern in all forms except YO.

2.  Most of the irregular YO verbs receive a "G"  in the YO form.  The others are just weird!  (we'll just have to memorize these, too! J)

Infinitive YO Form Meaning Sample Sentence
conocer conozco to know* Yo no conozco a tu madre. 
dar doy to give Siempre doy regalos a mi familia.
decir (i) digo to say, tell Por supuesto, ¡siempre digo la verdad!
hacer hago to make, do Yo nunca hago mi tarea.
oír oigo to hear Paciencia, ¡te oigo!
poner pongo to put, place Para la cena, pongo la mesa.
saber to know* tocar la guitarra, pero no dónde está.
salir salgo to leave, go out Mis amigos salen al cine, pero yo no salgo.
tener (ie) tengo to have Yo no tengo dinero para el almuerzo.
traer traigo to bring Ana trae la pizza y yo traigo el pan.
venir (ie) vengo to come Yo siempre vengo al colegio a tiempo.
ver veo to see No veo tu libro, ¿dónde está?

*CONOCERato know or be familiar with people & places
*SABERato know facts, information, or "how to" do a verb

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on TENER & VENIR
StudySpanish Notes on ESTAR, IR, & DAR
StudySpanish Notes on Irregular "YO" Verbs
Language Guide Notes on Irregular Verbs
 

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Present Tense Stem-Changing Verbs
1.  How to know one when you see one:
Stem-Changing verbs will be followed by parenthesis that tell you what the stem-change will be.
contar (ue) querer (ie) pedir (i) jugar (ue)

2.  What to do with one once you've found it:

1st find the stem: recomendar a recomend...
2nd identify the last vowel of the stem: recomend...
3rd conjugate by changing that last vowel of the stem (stem-changing verbs J) recomiendo recomendamos
recomiendas recomendáis
recomienda recomiendan

ATENCIóN:  Notice that the forms that are conjugated are in the shape of a BOOT (or SHOE)!  Makes memorizing a little easier!

3.  THE VERBS:

Verbs that change (eaie) 
cerrar to close comenzar to begin, start
despertar to wake up preferir to prefer
sentar to sit divertir to have fun
empezar to begin, start entender to understand
querer to want sentir to feel, regret
pensar to think, plan perder to lose
recomendar to recomend tener* to have
venir* to come    

* These are "go" verbs and have irregular YO forms:
venir
avengo     
teneratengo

Verbs that change (eai) 
conseguir* to get, obtain repetir to repeat
pedir to order, ask for, request seguir* to follow
decir* to say, tell servir to serve
vestir to dress    

* These are "go" verbs and have irregular YO forms:
decir
adigo      seguirasigo      conseguiraconsigo

Verbs that change (oaue) 

acostar to go to bed poder to be able, to can
almorzar to eat lunch dormir to sleep
probar to taste, test contar to count, tell
encontrar to find, encounter recordar to remember
costar** to cost morir to die
devolver to return (an object) volver to return, come back
    jugar to play

** This verb is only conjugated in the "IT" and "THEY" forms to agree with the object(s) being described


4.  MEMORIZE the stem-change for each verb.  The best way to do this is to play a few games, practice writing sentences, do the practices in the book!  Practice makes perfect!

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Stem-Changing Verbs: o-ue
StudySpanish Notes on Stem-Changing Verbs: e-ie
StudySpanish Notes on Stem-Changing Verbs: e-i
LanguageGuide Notes on Stem-Changing Verbs
 

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Present Tense of The Verb ESTAR
1.  The verb ESTAR means TO BE

2.  Since there are 2 verbs that mean TO BE (SER & ESTAR) there are rules about using each.

ESTAR is the PLACE to be
P POSITION Juan & José están cerca de la mesa.
L LOCATION San Luis está en el estado de Missouri.
A ACTION IN PROGRESS La Profesora Rehfeldt está explicando la lección y los estudiantes están escuchando.
C CONDITION* ¡Está lloviendo y las ventanas de mi coche están abiertas!
E EMOTION Los estudiantes están emocionadísimos.
* Condition *
Consider the following vocabulary when learning about condition
(look up any words you don't know!)

abierto     cerrado     desordenado     ordenado     limpio     sucio     vivo     muerto     roto     listo     presente     ausente     frío     caliente

3.  The chart for ESTAR looks like this: (notice the different reasons, too J )

yo estoy Yo siempre estoy presente para la clase de español. (condition or location)
estás ¿Cómo estás? (emotion)
él
ella
usted
está Este pastel está frío. (condition)
La familia está en casa. (location/position)
¿Y usted? ¿Qué está haciendo? (action) 
nosotros
nosotras
estamos Mis amigos y yo estamos frustrados. (emotion)
Tú y yo estamos lejos de casa. (position/location)
vosotros
vosotras
estáis ---------
ellos
ellas
ustedes
están Todos los estudiantes están jugando fútbol. (action)
Juán y tú están juntos. (position/location)
¿Dónde están? (location)

4.  ACTION IN PROGRESS requires some special attention.  The -ing form of the verb is called the present progressive.  The endings for the present progressive are:

-AR a -ando -ER a -iendo -IR a -iendo
hablar estoy hablando comer estamos comiendo salir está saliendo
trabajar ¿estás trabajando? hacer ¿qué estás haciendo? escribir están escribiendo

¡TEN CUIDADO!
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
is just what it sounds like...PRESENT!  Present progressive cannot be used to indicate something that is habitual or in the near future. 
For example:
YES:
I am doing my Spanish homework.
NO: Tonight I am doing my Spanish homework.
NO: She's always doing her Spanish homework with Bob.

5. WEIRDO ALERT! Of course there are weirdos, there always are, aren't there?!

y words
this happens when there are 3 vowels in a row, the 'i' changes to 'y'

leer
(to read)
leyendo Estoy leyendo el mapa. I'm reading the map.
traer
(to bring)
trayendo Carlos está trayendo sus libros. Carlos is bringing his books.
creer
(to believe)
creyendo Mis padres no me están creyendo. My parents aren't believing me.
ir
(to go)
yendo Estamos yendo al partido de fútbol americano. We're going to the football game.

Stem-Changing Verbs
These will always be -IR verbs that have a regular stem-change in the present tense.  The stem-change won't always be the same, so memorize them carefully.

dormir
(to sleep)
durmiendo ¡Bob está durmiendo en la clase otra vez! Bob is sleeping in class again!
servir
(to serve)
sirviendo El camarero nos está sirviendo el postre. The waiter is serving us dessert.
repetir
(to repeat)
repitiendo La clase está repitiendo las palabras. The class is repeating the words.
seguir
(to continue, to follow)
siguiendo Mi papá no está siguiendo las instrucciones. My dad is not following the instructions.
vestir
(to dress)
vistiendo Los niños se están vistiendo para acostarse. The children are getting dressed for bed.
decir
(to say, to tell)
diciendo Mis amigos no me están diciendo la verdad. My friends are not telling me the truth.
pedir
(to order)
pidiendo ¿Qué estás pidiendo? What are you ordering?

For additional information and practice:
See section on
SER vs. ESTAR
 

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Present Tense of the Verb IR

1IR is a verb that means "TO GO".  It has 2 basic uses, for going to places and for going to do something.  Look at the following chart of examples.
  going to 'the place'
ir + a + 'the place'
going to verb
ir + a + infinitive
voy Yo voy al centro comercial. Yo voy a ir a la escuela.
vas ¿Vas a la biblioteca? vas a comer conmigo, ¿no?
va ¿Adónde va Juan? ¿al colegio?
Mi perro va a las casas de sus amigos.
Mi familia va a los centros comerciales.
José va a dormir mucho esta noche.
La clase va a estudiar mucho para el examen.
¿Qué va a hacer hoy?
vamos Tomás y yo vamos a las clases.
¿Adónde vamos? ¡Al almacén!
Mis amigos y yo vamos a ir de compras.
van Mis padres siempre van a las oficinas.
Los estudiantes van a la sala 136.
Los profesores van a calificar muchos papeles.
¿Van ustedes a jugar en el parque?

2. Remember, when using "TO THE" in Spanish, there is one contraction to worry about....masculine, singular.  Consider the following examples:
María va al mercado para ir de compras. (masculine, singular...a + el a al) ¡Gloria y yo vamos a los bancos para robarlos! (plural, masculine...nothing changes)
José y Juana van a la escuela para tocar en la banda. (feminine, singular...nothing changes) Yo voy a las montañas para esquiar este invierno. (plural, feminine...nothing changes)

For additional information and practice:
Pronunciation Guide at LanguageGuide
StudySpanish Notes on ESTAR, IR, and DAR 
StudySpanish Notes on IR A + Infinitive 
 

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Present Tense of the Verb SER

1.  The Verb SER means "TO BE".  Remember earlier when we saw the verb ESTAR, you notice that there are now 2 verbs with the same meaning.  Just like ESTAR, SER has special uses.  Memorize the chart below and that will help you remember when to use them.

C Characteristic Mi madre es alta y morena.
N Nationality Yo soy americana y Ana es méxicana.
O Origin, Ownership,
Occupation
El libro es de Borders.
Es mi libro.
Mi padre es doctor.
T Time/Date Hoy es viernes Son las once y media.
La fiesta es el viernes.
E Equals
(noun = noun)
Ana es mi amigo, ella es artista.

2.  Look at the chart below for SER.

yo soy Yo soy estudiante y soy estudiosa. (equals and characteristics)
eres ¿De dónde eres?  ¿Eres italiana? (origin and nationality)
él
ella
usted
(it)
es La clase es difícil. (characteristics)
El hombre en la foto es mi padre.
(equals)
¿Es usted colombiana?
(nationality)
Es la una menos cuarto.
(time)
nosotros
nosotras
somos Julio y yo somos buenos amigos. (equals)
ellos
ellas
ustedes
son Los perros son de la tienda de animales domesticos. (origin)

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on SER
 

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Present Tense of the Verb TENER

1.  The verb TENER means TO HAVE. It is most often used to show possession of objects and relationships.
yo

Yo TENGO mucha tarea en la clase de español

nosotros
nosotras

Gloria y yo TENEMOS muchas clases difíciles.

¿TIENES una hermana o un hermano?

vosotros
vosotras

tenéis

él
ella
Ud.

¡Mi amigo Bob TIENE mi libro de español y lo necesito!

ellos
ellas
Uds.

Y Uds., ¿Cuánta tarea TIENEN en tus clases?

2.  There are 2 key phrases to learn when using TENER in a compound phrase (with another verb).  Remember, the second verb will always be infinitive in these expressions.

TENER QUE + Infinitive
(to have to VERB)

TENER GANAS DE + Infinitive
(to feel like VERBING)

Yo tengo que hacer mi tarea. (have to)

Todos nosotros tenemos ganas de ir al cine (feel like)

Tienes ganas de comer pizza, ¿no? (feel like)  
Mi gato tiene ganas de beber mi leche. (feels like)
¿El bebé tiene ganas de dormir? (feel like)
La profesora tiene que calcular las notas. (has to)
Rosa y tú tienen que ir de compras. (have to)

Uds. tienen ganas de hacer la tarea de español, ¿verdad?

3. TENER can also be used to mean TO BE in some special expressions

tengo Yo tengo quince años.
tienes ¿tienes calor?
tiene Mi perro tiene mucha hambre.
tenemos Mis amigos y yo siempre tenemos sed después de correr.
tienen ¡Mis padres tienen mucho miedo cuando yo manejo su coche!

4.  When using TENER with feelings, we have to use the word MUCHO to mean VERY.  This is because with this special group of phrases, we are actually saying that we "have" that feeling.  Notice that the ending of the 'feeling' word never changes, regardless of who it is describing.

tengo mucho calor I'm very hot
tenemos mucho frío we're very cold
tienen mucha hambre they're very hungry
¿tienes mucha sed? are you very thirsty?
¡Ten mucho cuidado! Be very careful!
él tiene mucha suerte he's very lucky
tengo mucha prisa I'm really in a hurry
ella tiene mucho miedo de perros she's very/really afraid of dogs
Carla tiene razón en su problema de matemáticas Carla is right on her math problem
¿Por qué no tienes razón en esta pregunta? Why are you wrong on this problem?
tienen mucho sueño they're very sleepy

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on TENER & VENIR
StudySpanish Notes on Expressions with TENER
Colby Notes on TENER Idioms
 

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The Present Perfect Tense

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Preterite Tense: Regular Verbs

1.  The PRETERITE tense is one way of speaking in the PAST.  In English, it may sound like any of the following:  (notice that it may be -ed, or it may be an irregular...who said English had no irregulars?!)

*We worked late last night.
*We brought home pizza for dinner.
*He put the dishes on the table.
*I read my book for English.


2.  Remember that when forming REGULAR CONJUGATIONS, you must first do the following:
1...check the ending of the verb to see what kind it is (-ar, -er, -ir)
2...drop the ending, get to the root
3...add the appropriate ending (see the charts below)

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Preterite of IR, SER, & HACER

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Preterite of Irregular Verbs

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Preterite of Stem-Changing Verbs

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Preterite vs. Imperfect: The Rules & Keywords for Using Imperfect 

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Preterite vs. Imperfect: The Rules & Keywords for Using Preterite 

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Preterite vs. Imperfect: The Rules of Usage

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Questions and Question Words

1.  Tag Questions: These simple "sí/no" questions have TAG questions added to the end of a regular sentence, "tagged" onto the end actually.  The sentence can stand on it's own, it's just a simple sentence.  The TAG on the end turns the whole thing into a question.   

¿Verdad? a used with positive and negative sentences

Eres de Ecuador, ¿verdad?

No le gusta montar en bicicleta, ¿verdad?

¿No? a used ONLY with positive sentences

Julio hace mucha tarea en las clases, ¿no?

2. Inversions: These "sí/no" questions are actually sentences with an altered word order. The word order is what makes the difference between a sentence and a question.  Consider the following examples:
Gloria estudia mucho. ¿Estudia Gloria mucho?
Los estudiantes tocan los instrumentos. ¿Tocan los estudiantes los instrumentos?
El lunes mis amigos y tú juegan béisbol. ¿Juegan tú y tus amigos béisbol el lunes?

Sentence Word Order
Subject + Verb
(other words can go anywhere)

Question Word Order
Verb + Subject + Other words
(sometimes V + OW + S)

3. Question Words: These questions require a more detailed answer, not just a "sí/no" response.  Likewise, they take a little more work to memorize.  Try memorizing them in groups, working from the base word in each group.
Dónde a where
Adónde
De dónde
Quién a who
   A quién      De quién
Para quién      Con quién
Cuánto a how much
Cuánto/a
Cuántos/as
Qué a what (for definition/explanation)
Cuál
a (for a selection or choice)
Cuáles
a (which ones; selection or choice)
Cómo 
a (how, what's ... like)
Others:
Por qué
Cuándo

Consider the following examples, noticing the word order.  It's similar to the word order for inverted questions.  Practice answering them with full sentences.

¿Dónde está mi mochila? ¿Quién tiene mi mochila?
¿Qué necesito para la clase de español? ¿Cuánta tarea tenemos en clase?
¿Cuál es tu clase favorita?  ¿Por qué te gusta esta clase?
¿Quién enseña tu clase favorita?  ¿Cómo es tu profesor?
¿Cuándo es el examen en español? ¿Mañana?

The word order is: Question word + Verb + Subject + Other Words
The exception is in the cuánto family:  Cuánto + Noun + Verb + Subject + OW

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Asking Questions
Language Guide Notes on Asking Questions Pt 1
Language Guide Notes on Asking Questions Pt 2
Language Guide Notes on Asking Questions Pt 3

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Reflexive Verbs

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Saber vs. Conocer

¿Qué sabes? ¿Quién conoces? ... What do you know? Whom do you know? In Spanish there are two ways to say "TO KNOW". The distinction is based on the context of the sentence, or what is 'known'. Like SER vs. ESTAR, the difference isn't present in English, but is very important in Spanish.

CONOCER
[ To know people & places Z
[ To be familiar with places & things Z
[
Often used with 'personal A' Z

conozco

Yo conozco bien al director de la orquesta.

conocemos

Mis amigos y yo conocemos bien el cine Galaxy.

conoces

¿Conoces esa canción popular?

conocéis

---------

conoce

¿Quién conoce a Raúl?

conocen

Todos los estudiantes conocen la cafetería.

 

SABER
[ To know facts & information Z
[
Often used with QUE (that) to show what someone knows Z
[
Can also be used with interrogatives Z

[ To know how to do something (a skill) Z
[
Often used with INFINITIVES to show what someone can do Z

Yo no bailar, pero me gustaría aprender.

sabemos

Todos nosotros sabemos que hay cincuenta estados en los EE.UU.

sabes

¿Sabes que el examen es mañana?

sabéis

---------

sabe

El equipo sabe bien que es importante practicar cada día.

saben

¡Mi abuela y mi mamá saben preparar un pastel deliciosísimo!

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on SABER & CONOCER
StudySpanish Notes on the Personal "A"
StudySpanish Notes on Contractions
Colby Practices with SABER & CONOCER

 

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SER vs ESTAR
To BE or Not To BE: What a Question!

1. Review the uses of SER (no need to retype it all here! J )

2. Review the uses of ESTAR and don't forget to notice the section on Present Progressives.

3. Now go practice.  SER and ESTAR are funny verbs...they look deceptively easy on the outside, but even upper level students forget the silly details of it all.  SER vs. ESTAR takes a great deal of practice and repetition in order to master the concept.  Don't be fooled...it isn't as easy as it looks.  But don't be frustrated...you'll get it!
 

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on SER vs ESTAR: Fundamental Differences
StudySpanish Notes on SER vs ESTAR: Uses of SER
StudySpanish Notes on SER vs ESTAR: Uses of ESTAR
StudySpanish Notes on SER vs ESTAR: Contrasting Uses
StudySpanish Notes on Present Progressive
 

 

 

Subjunctive vs. Indicative: The Rules of Usage
(Emotional Expressions)

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Subjunctive vs. Indicative: The Rules of Usage
(Impersonal Expressions)

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Subjunctive vs. Indicative: The Rules of Usage
(Expressions of Doubt)

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Subjunctive vs. Indicative: The Rules of Usage
(Expressions of Persuasion)

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Review of Superlatives
Repaso de Superlativos

1. SUPERLATIVES show how something is "super" or the best member of a certain group.  They can also, of course, show how something is totally the worst of all the others.

2. In English, the equivalent is usually "-est".  Sometimes it is expressed with "most" or "least".

3. In Spanish, there is a formula for this expression:

"the" + (NOUN) + más/menos + ADJECTIVE + (de + the group)
Soy la estudiante más inteligente de mi clase. I am the most intelligent in my class.
Bob es el menos atrevido de mis amigos Bob is the least daring of my friends.
Gloria y José son los miembros más talentosos del coro. Gloria and José are the most talented members of the choir.
Yo tengo la profesora menos difícil de todos. I have the least difficult teacher of all.
En la clase de biología, nosotros hacemos los proyectos más divertidos. In biology, we do the most enjoyable projects. ('funnest' J)

Did you notice:
[ The "DE" translates as "IN" in English Z
[
The ADJECTIVE must agree with the subject of the sentence Z
[
The 'noun' can be left out Z
[
The 'DE' showing the group can also be left out Z

3. Special words:  Just like in English, there are words that don't work with the formula.

el mejor (noun) de the best of/in
el peor (noun) de the worst of/in
el mayor (noun) de the oldest of/in
el menor (noun) de the youngest of/in
NEVER use más or menos with these words!!!!!
La profesora es la mayor de la clase.
Mi página Web es la mejor de todas.
Los estudiantes que no hacen la tarea tienen las peores notas de todas.
Los jóvenes del 9º grado son los estudiantes menores de la escuela.
Did you notice:
[ mejor & peor: adjective + noun Z
[
menor & mayor: noun + adjectiveZ
[ The "DE" still translates as "IN" in English Z
[
The ADJECTIVE and THE must agree with the subject of the sentence Z
[
The NOUN can be left out Z
[
The 'DE' showing the group can also be left out Z

4. Take a look at these lists of 3s for the irregular comparativs & superlatives:

viejo
Soy viejo.
mayor
Soy mayor que tú.
el mayor
Soy la mayor de la clase.
joven
Son jóvenes.
menor
Somos menores que ellos.
el menor
Somos los menores de la escuela.
bueno/bien
Ella dibuja bien.
mejor
Yo dibujo mejor que ella.
el mejor
Ellos son los mejores artistas.
malo
Soy mal jugador.
peor
Juego peor que las chicas.
el peor
Soy el peor jugador del equipo.

5. One last point...DE + EL = DEL
Look closely at the examples again.  Notice that in the DE expressions, DE + EL = DEL.  Not every instance of DE needs to be in a contraction, only when followed by EL.

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on Superlatives
StudySpanish Notes on Contractions

 

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Verbs that use Infinitives
Parejas de Verbos

1. Usually, we only need one verb to get our ideas across.  But sometimes, we want to express an idea that takes more than a single verb.  In these cases, we use "Verb Pairs", or verbs that use infinitives.  Many of these verbs express a possible future action, no simply the present.

When two verbs go walking,
the first verb does the talking!

2. When using two verbs in the same clause (expressing the same idea), the first verb will be conjugated to match the subject.  The second verb will always remain in the infinitive form. The following is a list of common verbs that will use infinitives:
me gusta * I like No me gusta estudiar ni trabajar.
me gustaría * I would like A mis amigos les gustaría ir a unas fiestas.
me encanta * I love A Bob y a mí nos encanta pasar tiempo con amigos.
me encantaría * I would love ¿A ti y a tus amigos les encantaría ir al cine conmigo?
poder (ue) to can (verb)
to be able (to verb)
José no puede salir esta noche porque tiene que hacer prácticas de español.
deber to should (verb) Nosotros debemos hacer la tarea cada noche.
preferir (ie) to prefer (to verb) ¿Qué prefieres hacer, montar en bicicleta o patinar?
querer (ie) to want (to verb) Mis amigos y yo no queremos sacar malas notas.
pensar (ie) to plan (to verb) Este fin de semana los miembros de la banda piensan ganar la competencia.
necesitar to need (to verb) Para la clase de historia necesito aprender de memoria todas las fechas importantes.
tener que to have (to verb) ¿Qué tienes que hacer para tus clases esta semana?
ir a going (to verb) ¿Cuándo vas a practicar para la competencia de la orquesta?
acabar de # to have just (verbed) Mis amigos acaban de jugar al fútbol americano en el parque.

* Verbs like GUSTA have special rules.  To review them, follow this link
# This verb actually speaks of the immediate past, not the future as the other verbs do.

For additional information and practice:
StudySpanish Notes on TENER QUE
StudySpanish Notes on IR A + Infinitive
StudySpanish Notes on ACABAR DE + Infinitive
StudySpanish Notes on VOLVER A + Infinitive

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